Argumentation

Toulmin Method of Argumentation

The below videos explain the Toulmin Method of Argumentation, which is an extremely useful framework for developing arguments. While you might not always be required to follow ALL of these steps when creating arguments in your debates or in your essays, it is a very good idea to TRY to incorporate all of them into your arguments. NOTE: In class, we often use the term “justification” where Toulmin uses “warrant”, but they mean basically the same thing.

 

Aristotelian Modes of Persuasion

As we have studied in class, Aristotle presented three modes, or approaches, to persuading or convincing someone of your argument. While logic is the foundation of your argument, ethos and pathos help you to present your argument in a way that is more palatable to other people, who, let’s face it, are not always the most purely logical creatures.


 

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Use your critical thinking when people in power call for war. They will use every trick in the book to convince you that war is a good idea. They will say it’s necessary. They will demonize “the other”. They will straight up lie to you. They will call those who disagree traitors who disrespect the troops. They will insist that you agree in the name of patriotism. They might say it will be quick and easy and that the people there actually want us to do it. If you need an example, look back to what was said about going into Iraq. Remember the billions of tax dollars that will be lost. Remember the lives that will be destroyed. Remember our shared humanity.
Neville Chamberlain and Adolf Hitler: When our face-to-face intuition fails us... badly. @malcolmgladwell discusses his new book Talking To Strangers as it relates to History.
On #ThisDayInHistory December 27, 537, the first religious services were held in the newly built #HagiaSophia. Built under the reign of #Byzantine Emperor #Justinian, it was once the #GreekOrthodox Christian patriarchal cathedral, briefly a #RomanCatholic cathedral, later an #Ottoman imperial mosque, and now a museum (Ayasofya Müzesi) in #Istanbul, #Turkey, formerly known as #Constantinople. Built in AD 537 before the Middle Ages, it was famous in particular for its massive dome. It was the world's largest building and an engineering marvel of its time. It is considered the epitome of Byzantine architecture and is said to have "changed the history of #architecture". You can see both the #Christian mosaics and the #Islamic calligraphy decorating the interior. The four towers, called minarets, were added by the Ottomans for delivering the five-times-daily call to prayer.
#Aramaic, the language spoken by #Jesus of Nazareth, along with most of the rest of the Middle East from the Iron Age until the early Middle Ages, still survives in this tiny town in #Syria. This is how it sounds.
#Confucius
#FlashbackFriday to the last day of school 2018! Epic rap battle between MC Hammurabi & DivineIntervention. My lyrics are recycled bars from the previous year’s talent show. His are straight #off the dome.
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Why Socrates Hated Democracy from The School of Life. This is one person’s reflection on one philosopher’s reflection on democracy. It doesn’t mean you have to agree with it. But it’s worth hearing a new perspective on something we often don’t stop to consider.

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