Argumentation

Toulmin Method of Argumentation

The below videos explain the Toulmin Method of Argumentation, which is an extremely useful framework for developing arguments. While you might not always be required to follow ALL of these steps when creating arguments in your debates or in your essays, it is a very good idea to TRY to incorporate all of them into your arguments. NOTE: In class, we often use the term “justification” where Toulmin uses “warrant”, but they mean basically the same thing.

 

Aristotelian Modes of Persuasion

As we have studied in class, Aristotle presented three modes, or approaches, to persuading or convincing someone of your argument. While logic is the foundation of your argument, ethos and pathos help you to present your argument in a way that is more palatable to other people, who, let’s face it, are not always the most purely logical creatures.


 

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“Freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed.” -MLK . . . Don’t just think of MLK as a famous American hero loved by the nation. It’s only now that he has a national holiday (and some people still don’t like him). It’s important to remember how disliked he was by so many Americans, and how unpopular his views were in his time. And this was not very long ago. Not at all. Those who are vilified and demonized today for standing up for what is right may be the heroes of tomorrow. Depends how it all goes down. Just don’t forget to broaden your perspective. Sit back to look at the whole timeline. The arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends toward justice. #MLKDay #DrKing #KeepDreaming #KeepFighting
#NHS Thank you guys so much for the birthday wishes! I especially appreciated the not one but TWO references to #PewPewPew (seems it still resonates years later) and the observation that I am both hyper and caring, which I consider a most honorable description. Cheers! 🏹 🏹 🏹
Two of our MUNions enjoying the Model United Nations 🇺🇳 conference at Brooklyn Tech! Check out @maspeth_mun for more conference pics! . . . Are you interested in joining the Maspeth Model UN Club? We are now opening up for new members for a limited time only! If you would like to join, come to our next meeting this Tuesday after school in room 404. Model UN is a great club. It requires hard work and dedication but it is also a lot of fun, it looks great to colleges, it makes you a better speaker and communicator, and you get to be part of the MUNion family! Come through (especially #FRESHMEN)!
SHOCKING! But also not that shocking, amirite? The truth about why #PresidentNixon started the #WarOnDrugs. The quote is real and it’s from his advisor. #AdamRuinsEverything 🍃💉
#Mbuti #Pygmies #Foragers #HunterGatherers #Congo #Imperialism #KingLeopold #BelgianCongo #WhiteSupremacy #Atrocity #Boyanga
Thanks for the “Holiday” greetings guys! #CornellNotesForChristmas #Navidad #Saturnalia #SolInvictus #Mithraism #Yule #WinterSolstice 🎄⛪️🏛🌞🗽🌲❄️
Solid example of how to use #synthesis to score the elusive final point on the AP rubric. This was from a DBQ essay on #IndenturedServitude, and this student, having finished addressing the thesis in relation to the documents on the assigned topic, added at the end a connection to a different place and time where there was also a system of semi-free labor not far off from slavery — the #encomienda system in the 16th century Spanish colonies in the Americas. This works because it doesn’t interrupt the main focus of the essay by coming at the end, and because it doesn’t come out of nowhere but rather is woven into the context of the main essay topic, and explicitly linked to that topic and the key points of the thesis argument being presented. There are other ways to earn that point, but synthesis is the most clear and objective.

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